10 WORST weight loss ingredients
In this group, we’ve put the potentially dangerous ingredients that can cause excessive heart stimulation, high appetite reduction, insomnia, and other side-effects that can lead to medical complications. These ingredients are also on the ‘banned’ list of the Polish Sanitation Authorities, so their availability is strongly limited for various sound safety reasons.
Johimbe – A natural indole alkaloid and a component of johimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark is also a recognised aphrodisiac and potency-enhancing agent. It stimulates the nervous system to function by blocking the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. Tree bark of medical yohimbe is also a source of alkaloids (isojohimbina, alojohimbina) that may enhance its activity. With proper dosing, taken with caffeine on an empty stomach and for a longer period before taking food, it also enhances lipolysis processes as a result of increased noradrenaline concentration in the body. There are no strictly-defined dosage standards. Some sources describe an optimum dose of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (usually a dose of 5-10 mg per day is applied). This may have an adverse effect on the operation of the cardiovascular system, even in completely healthy individuals.
Guggulsterones – Ingredients of active resins derived from Commiphara mukul, which has been used in the folk medicine of the ancient East to fight overweightness and obesity. It affects the lipid profile in the blood and increases the metabolism. Excess consumption can lead to disturbances in the functioning of the digestive system, cause headaches and intensification of allergic reactions. In sports supplementation, it is used for body mass reduction and to improve its composition and as a component of some thermogenics, and as a monopreparation. The dosage is 50 – 100 mg per day. The use of higher values may cause adverse side-effects, as described above.
Phenylethylamine (PEA) – A chemical compound present in a natural form (for example in chocolate) and synthesised in the human body from L-phenylalanine amino acid. As a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, it affects the nervous system, increasing the amount of dopamine and noradrenaline. Its only disadvantage is that it is very rapidly degraded by the MAO-B enzyme when taken orally, and can therefore be modified by disintegration-delaying components. In sports supplementation, PEA is used to enhance mood, stimulation, and increase thermogenesis before a workout. It can also be an ingredient of some fat burners. Excessive and frequent administration may reduce mental capacity.
Sibutramine – A chemical compound used as an anorectic (appetite suppressant) in obesity treatment. The mechanism of its actions involves inhibition of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake. Enhances postprandial feelings of satiety and increases energy expenditure, possibly by increasing thermogenesis, which leads to a decrease in body weight of up to 25 kg per month, which is a very large disturbance to homeostasis. On January the 21st, 2010, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use, under the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended suspending the marketing authorisation on EU markets for all preparations containing sibutramine. This was related to the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) study results, which showed an increase from 10.0% to 11.4% risk of myocardial infarction not resulting in death, stroke not resulting in death, and cardiac arrest positively ended with resuscitation or death from cardiovascular events, in patients over 54 years of age with cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes treated with sibutramine compared with placebo. The increase of risk was associated mainly with increased heart attack rate and stroke incidence, which did not result in death.
Geranium extract (DMAA, 1,3-dimetyloamylamina) – A chemical compound containing a small amount of geranamine oil obtained from geraniums (Pelargoniom odorantissimum) – the common ornamental plants often found in gardens and pots. It is an aliphatic amine influencing neurotransmitter activity (including catecholamines), which stimulates the body, and has a thermogenic effect. It improves the capacity for exercise (strength and endurance), especially when used with caffeine, and also improves intellectual abilities by increasing concentration and memory. It is not recommended for use before the age of 18. DMAA is widely used in sports supplementation to provide stimulation, improve physical capacity and as an ingredient in fat burners. It also available as a monopreparation. In 2009, the World Anti-Doping Agency placed geranamine on its list of banned (performance-enhancing) substances.
Efedrine – A plant alkaloid, phenylethylamine derivative is used as a stimulant, appetite reducer, and concentration-increasing agent. Sometimes also used as a doping agent and in its ECA form (a mixture of ephedrine, caffeine and aspirin) as a strong, effective slimming preparation. In some people it may cause a psychological dependence (has an initial euphoric effect without a related physical effect), and due to increasing tolerance cannot be used for long (in time, receptors are blocked and become insensitive to ephedrine).
Hordenine (N,N-dimethyltyramine,) – A naturally occurring alkaloid in some cactus and locust trees (acacia), increasing the contractile force of the heart, and having bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects (retaining the appropriate level of bacterial flora). Hordenine’s effect is short – therefore higher doses are used. It affects noradrenaline levels, speeding up the process of reducing body fat reserves, and also has a stimulating effect. Not available as a monopreparation. In supplements it is used in combination with caffeine and synephrine as a stimulant (creatine stacks, nitrogen boosters) and fat burners. So far, its effects have not been proven, and only works in conjunction with other mixtures that may have a thermogenic effect.
(3,5-diiodothyronine) – A thyroid hormone metabolite. It has only been tested on animals and has been proven to intensify oxidation. Thus it can help to reduce body fat (weight loss). Based on medical literature there are no contraindications and side-effects from its use during treatment of thyroid hormone.
6,7-dihydroxybergamottin, bergamotyna – A naturally occurring organic compound (belongs to furanocoumarins) present in grapefruit and grapefruit-based products, in bergamot oil and essential oils in citrus. It inhibits cytochrome P-450 activity that metabolises many substances used in sports supplementation and medicine. Added to sports preparations, it provides high bioavailability and effectiveness of nutrients. It also raises testosterone hormone levels. In Poland, it has been banned by the Sanitary Inspectorate.
Forskolina (Coleus forskohlii) – An Indian nettle, its root – raw material – is used as a source of biologically active diterpenes. It has been proven that forskolin activates adenylate cyclase and increases cAMP levels, thereby affecting the growth of muscle mass and reducing body fat. It lowers the level of cortisol, which is a hormone having a catabolic effect on muscle tissue. In supplementation, it is used to support effort, build the silhouette and reduce body fat. Also banned in Poland by the Sanitary Inspectorate.
Tyramine (4-hydroxyphenethylamine) – A derivative of tyrosine present in a natural form in plants (including wine, tea, chocolate) and animal foods (red meat, cheese). It affects the severity of burning stored fat (lipolysis). Excessive intake of tyramine can cause side-effects (increased blood pressure, headaches). Tyramine is a component of slimming supplements and stimulants (in combination with caffeine).